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In 2003, Jeffrey Allan Danelek wrote Reconsidering Atlantis, which was revised and republished in 2008 as Atlantis: Lessons from the Lost Continent, in which he examines the ten post popular Atlantis theories. Danelek examines Plato's writings and concludes that there is enough in the texts to conclude that Atlantis was a real place, but there is not enough evidence to to pinpoint its location specifically, beyond it lying somewhere within the Tropics.

Danelek also contends that it is quite possible that civilization advanced further back in prehistory several times, and met disasters, forcing civilization to start again. However, this is speculation and little evidence is presented.

About the Tropics

The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. It is limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at 23°26′14.4″ (or 23.43732°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at 23°26′14.4″ (or 23.43732°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun reaches a subsolar point, a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year.

Tropical ecosystems may consist of rainforests, dry deciduous forests, spiny forests, desert and other habitat types. There are often significant areas of biodiversity, and species endemism present, particularly in rainforests and dry deciduous forests. Some examples of important biodiversity and/or high endemism ecosystems are: El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan rainforests, Amazon Rainforest territories of several South American countries, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, the Waterberg Biosphere of South Africa, and eastern Madagascar rainforests. Often the soils of tropical forests are low in nutrient content, making them quite vulnerable to slash-and-burn deforestation techniques, which are sometimes an element of shifting cultivation agricultural systems.

In biogeography, the tropics are divided into Paleotropics (Africa, Asia and Australia) and Neotropics (Caribbean, Central America, and South America). Together, they are sometimes referred to as the Pantropic. The Neotropical region should not be confused with the ecozone of the same name; in the Old World, there is no such ambiguity, as the Paleotropics correspond to the Afrotropical, Indomalayan, and partly the Australasian and Oceanic ecozones.

Regions within the tropics may well not have a tropical climate. There are alpine tundra and snow-capped peaks, including Mauna Kea, Mount Kilimanjaro, and the Andes as far south as the northernmost parts of Chile and Argentina. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the area within the geographical tropics is classed not as "tropical" but as "dry" (arid or semi-arid) including the Sahara Desert, the Atacama Desert and Australian Outback.

Countries within the Tropics are:



Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.


Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galápagos Islands, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela.


Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kits and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin (France), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Cacaos Islands, United States Virgin Islands.


Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sudan, Zambia.


Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda.


Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Saint Helena, São Tomé and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.


Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, India.

tropics.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/21 02:23 (external edit)